標籤彙整:帕坦伽利

瑜伽哲學–什麼是瑜伽八支?

每天早上,都會去山上走走.有一天遇到一個山友,他和我打了個招呼之後,開始閒聊,當他知道我在從事瑜伽教學時,他對瑜伽有了很大的興趣,因為瑜伽看起來很難,能看到一個人能將這麼難的動作做到可以出師也真是奇人奇事.對他而言,我是很有趣的主題.

對我而言,他只是一個普通的山友,哈!我爬山不太喜歡說話,像老子一樣,我喜歡一個人靜靜地爬山,聽鳥叫,看山景,就這麼靜靜地讓自己溶入山景裡面,好似一幅明清山水畫一樣.

直到前幾天,他開始和我討論他對瑜伽的認識,真的是令我汗顏不已.他借了一本好大的原文書,書名是Teaching Yoga: Essential Foundations and Techniques(瑜伽教學:基礎與教學技巧).他很認真的從chapter one第一章開始讀起,從瑜伽的起源是西元多少年,當時的歷史背景,以及瑜伽蘊育自哪些經典,每一部經典的主旨為何,以及當時的人們對瑜伽的認識.他看得很仔細,我聽得很認真.最令我感到神奇的是,他在解釋瑜伽為何時,他用了帕坦伽利的八支理論.這讓我又重新温習了瑜伽的基本價值及核心.

温故,知新.從他的口中,我開始再反省自己的教學有沒有偏離瑜伽真正的精神,有沒有符合帕坦伽俐口中的八支的理論.

Patanjali提出八支理論,英文是ashtanga yoga或是the eight-limbed path yoga請不要和ashtanga vinyasa yoga阿斯坦加瑜伽弄混,以前我以為我學的阿斯坦加瑜伽才是Patanjali口中正統的瑜伽,後來才知道是個天大的錯誤,老師可能太自豪自己的派別,所以無形中給了我這種錯誤的印象.那麼,這位瑜伽之神口中的八支是哪八支呢?

1yama-持戒

ahimsa

satya

asteya

brahmacharya

aparigraha

2niyama-精進

saucha

santosa

tapas

svadhyaya

ishvarapranidhana

3asana

4pranayama

5pratyahara

6dharana

7dhyana

8samadhi

但現代瑜伽之父B.K.S. Iyengar在Light on the yoga sutras of patanjali這本書用了一個非常有名的譬喻,他說:瑜伽,就像是一顆果樹一樣,我們一般人能看到什麼呢,我不知道,但這位大師觀察到人的生命就像一顆樹一樣,他看到了樹根,樹幹,樹技,樹葉,以及樹皮,樹液和花朵,最後結成果實.

樹根,就是yama持戒

樹幹,就是niyama精進

樹枝,就是asana體位

樹葉,就是pranayam調息

樹皮,就是pratyahara攝心

樹汁,就是dharana專注

開花,就是Dhyana入定

結果,就是smadhi三摩地

看了原文書,才發現是Iyengar做了這麼的解釋,他在瑜伽之樹這本書有提到,可以看圖會比較明白

BKS Iyengar’s yoga tree

What is Yoga ?

Yoga is one of the six systems of classical Hindu philosophy (Darshanas). It was systematized by Patanjali in his classical work the Yoga Sutras. The word “Yoga” comes from the Sanskrit word “yug" meaning to yoke, join or unite. It refers to the united nature of body, mind and spirit or soul. This means connecting all aspects of the individual – body with mind and mind with soul – to achieve a happy, balanced and useful life. On the spiritual plane, the goal of practicing yoga is to achieve yoga, union of the self with the divine (supreme consciousness), otherwise known as enlightenment.

yoga is a method to achieve the state of Yoga.

There are many ways to approach “practicing yoga.” Bhakti yoga includes devotional practices like singing and dancing, Karma yoga is the yoga of action and service, Jnana yoga is the yoga of knowledge, Nada yoga involves absorption into a sound, yoga Nidra, or the sophrology of Alfonso Caycedo practices deep relaxation, stillness and insight.

Our approach is based on the classical Yoga, or Hatha yoga, and Raja yoga, or Royal yoga, which is also called Ashtanga yoga. It includes Asanas (physical postures), Pranayama (control of breathing) and Dhyana (meditation).

Ashtanga yoga means “eight-limbed yoga," as outlined by Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras. According to Patanjali, the path of yoga consists of eight spiritual practices: yama, nyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi. B.K.S Iynegar, one of the foremost yoga teacher in the world uses the metaphor of yoga as a tree.

1. Yama : Morality

The tree of Yoga : the Roots

Ahimsa (non-violence)

Satya (truthfulness)

Asteya (freedom from avarice, non-stealing)

Bramhacharaya (control of vital energy, involving self restraint and moderation)

Aparigraha (freedom from possession beyond one’s needs)

2. Nyama : Discipline

The tree of Yoga : the Trunk

Saucha (purity of body and mind, cleanliness)

Santosa (contentment)

Tapas (austerity, self discipline, conscious effort to achieve one’s aim)

Svadhyaya (self- study)

Isvarapranidhana (surrender to the Divine)

3. Asana : Postures

The tree of Yoga : the Branches

Asana is the practice of physical postures which brings strength, balance and flexibility. On a deeper level the practice of asanas is used as a tool to calm the mind and move into the inner essence of being.

4. Pranayama : Control of Breath

The tree of Yoga : the Leaves

Pranayama is the control of prana, the vital forces of the body, by measuring, control, and directing of the breath. Through Pranayama the respiratory and the circulatory systems are brought into a harmonious state. In the Yoga Sutra, the practices of pranayama and asana are considered to be high forms of purification and self discipline for the mind and the body.

5. Pratyahara : Control of the Senses

The tree of Yoga : the Bark

Pratyahara, or the control of the senses, is a conscious effort to draw awareness away from the external world and outside stimuli and redirect it inward, toward the self. Pratyaharara corresponds to the inner journey of the senses from the outside to the core of one’s being

6. Dharana : Concentration

The tree of Yoga : the Sap

Each stage prepares for the next. In pratyahara we become self-observant; in dharana, we focus our attention on a single point. In dharana we learn how to steady the mind from wandering – through memories, dreams or reflective thought – by concentrating on a single mental object.

7. Dhyana : Meditation

The tree of Yoga : the Flowers

“When the flow of concentration is uninterrupted, the state that arises is dhyana,” writes B.K.S. Iyengar. Where dharana practices one-pointed attention, dhyana is a state of being keenly aware without focus. At this stage, the mind has been quieted, and in the stillness it produces a state of “One beeing” of the subject and the object of meditation.

8. Samadhi : Enlightenment

The tree of Yoga : the Fruits

State of peace and bliss. At this stage, the practioneer merges with his or her point of focus and transcends the Self altogether. He or she comes to realize a profound connection with all living things and being at one with the Universe.

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