應用肌動學上課心得四(4/10,2010) Cranial Fault







上瑜伽課,要改變一個人的身體很簡單,但要改變一個人的性格,很難。

上了幾年瑜伽課,變成老油條了,此時想要改變一個人的習性,更難,尤其是對流派的執著。

當,習性根深蒂固時,想要改變一個人的態度,就更無可能了。因為態度的呈現,就是心性的呈現。



就像是吃垃圾食物一般,為了短暫的滿足感,最後演變成一種癮頭,無法戒,無法斷,根據研究,成癮者的大腦裡特定的多巴胺受體會減少。多巴胺是一種神經化學物質,作用於大腦裡的愉快中樞,成癮者的多巴胺受體分泌減少,得暴飲暴食,才會產生滿足感。



吸菸或是吸食毒品讓人成癮的機制也是如此。



以瑜伽的角度來看,那是心的成癮,意謂著思想模式被僵化了,過於堅持某種教條,寧願放棄體驗生命的各種可能性,和固執地堅持傳統的衛道人士無異。



瑜伽,很難學,因為它從心著手,但相反地,瑜伽也很好學,因為它有八支的方法,可以讓人從他律,自律,體位法,生命能量控制法,感官收攝法,專注,禪化,三摩地,逐一到達寧靜安詳的三摩地境界。

In brief the eight limbs, or steps to yoga, are as follows:

Yama :  Universal morality

Niyama :  Personal observances

Asanas :  Body postures

Pranayama :  Breathing exercises, and control of prana

Pratyahara :  Control of the senses

Dharana :  Concentration and cultivating inner perceptual awareness

Dhyana :  Devotion, Meditation on the Divine

Samadhi :  Union with the Divine

一部被公認為瑜伽界最靈性的經典由Astavakra(阿士塔伐克拉)所著的Astavakra Gita(王者之王瑜伽經),已由喜悅之路邱顯峯老師所譯,有提到以下章節:

1.14. You have long been trapped in the snare of identification with the body. Sever it with the knife of knowledge that “I am awareness”, and be happy, my dearest.

孩子,你長期被自我感(abhimana)給囚禁,要用菩提本智(bodoham)的知識劍來斷除,以生快樂。



1.15. You are really unbound and actionless, self-illuminating and spotless already. The cause of your bondage is that you are still resorting to stilling the mind.

你本是不執著的,無為的,自我發光且無瑕疵的,所以用心從事修定,其實就是你的束縛。




瑜伽研習者心性的修練,才是瑜伽最真切的內涵。



而這一切在當今的訓練體系中,所佔比例極微。在瑜伽醫學的研習過程裡,扎根的理論基礎,僅有少數人願意下苦心去研讀。以AIS(Active isolated stretch)單一肌肉主動伸展法,有一些老師在教學上有應用其技巧,大部分的學生反應不錯,但少部分的學生反應普普,讓老師在教學上有一些不知所措,問題到底在那?



其實AIS僅適用在大部分的人身上,另外少部分肌肉筋膜過緊的人,可能要用到PNF(proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation本體感覺神經誘發術)或是其他的技巧,而也有一小部分肌肉筋膜先天軟骨的人,這一個方法助益並不大,他們需要的是強化的訓練。



所以,第一件事是學會如何判斷學生的體質,以及身體的架構,選擇適合他的伸展方法,請他在練習時,靜心去體會身體的語言,因為學生才是主角,老師只是指導者而已。



接著,認識每一條肌肉的起止點,功能,並判斷肌肉所屬上下關節是否處在正常位置,再確定:肌肉是否處在正常收縮狀態。若是正常,則可以適用,若是受傷,則適受傷的程度,若是嚴重,則建議先熱敷,可用熱水袋或是遠紅外線,再操作技巧。第三個學會逐一伸展,並靜下心來感受肌肉伸展的感覺,兩秒鐘,是因為伸展過度會刺激到肌梭細胞,會引起肌肉的收縮反應,因此在它反應之前就停止,可以逐次加深伸展的程度。



最後,要明白這些伸展法,只是一種暖身保養的方法,效果只能維持一下下,所以適合放在瑜伽體法之前來實行,這在施化難陀的瑜伽課,最常見,因為這個流派的暖身做得十分徹底,每一個動作都停留一下下,從頭做到腳。











人體是十分細微而精巧的構造,這些動作在伸展肌肉,看似肌肉是主角,其實不然,主角是神經系統,就像木偶一樣,看到木偶在動,其實是背後的細線在動。在這次4/10(六)應用肌肉動力學第四堂課有提到一個觀念:Cranial Fault.

Cranial 是顱骨的意思,Fault是錯誤,二者按中文是顱骨錯誤,天呵,可不能這樣直譯,很嚇人。它的意思是顱骨是由八塊頭蓋骨組成,這和顏面骨完全不一樣。8 Cranial Bones如下:

1 x Ethmoid Bone篩骨

1 x Frontal Bone額骨

1 x Occipital Bone枕骨

2 x Parietal Bones頂骨

1 x Sphenoid Bone 蝶骨

2 x Temporal Bones顳骨



顱骨中間有縫,所以頭顱實際上是由八塊骨頭所組成的,在瑜伽的倒立練習時,重心一般都置放在百會穴或是前囟門(也就是冠狀縫及矢狀縫交接處),頭倒立為何被稱為瑜伽之王,那是因為這個動作可以促進內分泌系統的運作,並安定自律神經等等功能。



重點來了,它提到內分泌系統及神經系統,這就是倒立為何如此有名的原因,但很多人都有Cranial Fault的問題而不自知,為了證明同學是否有此問題,彭士峰博士當場示範給我們看.首先,他請一位同學躺下,雙手上舉,以胸大肌為檢測肌肉,一開始檢測時,同學的胸大肌是有力的,但接著彭博士請他自行想像剛剛受測的情景之後,再度檢查,發現胸大肌這回變得沒有力,一點力量也使不出來,太神了,這位壯壯的男生簡直不敢相信自己的身體竟無法出力,呵...這就表示這位同學有cranial fault顱骨錯位(故且翻之)問題,問題可能出在頭顱骨或是脊椎,要仔細檢查方可得知.



也有可能是出生時,因為新生兒的頭顱較柔軟,所以在出生當下有受到擠壓,造成顱骨或是脊椎有一些小小的狀況,因此,在做橫隔膜式的深呼吸時,無法和顱骨的脈動同步,也就是說,當你在深吸氣時,顱骨必須是有彈性擴張的,但幅度極微小到無法測量,所以在主流醫學的解剖學書上,我們常定義其為不動關節/纖維性關節(synarthrosis)

纖維性連接 (Articulationes fibrosae) –縫隙連接,例如顱骨之間



實際上,顱骨縫是會和呼吸同步脈動的,吸氣時,顱骨縫的纖維性組織會擴張,讓壓力可以釋放;吐氣時該組織會縮緊。這樣的動作可以促進CSF腦脊髓液的流動及頭部血液的流動.這就是顱薦療法為何受人重視的原因.



這裡,提到一個十分重要的觀念,呼吸,呼吸中樞,位在腦幹這個稱為生命中樞的地方。有一些事業有成的學生深受睡眠中止症所苦,熟睡一小時呼吸可以停止五六十次,往往一個意外,就因呼吸道狹窄而停止呼吸猝死。



呼吸不僅很重要,對瑜伽人來說更是重要,因為沒有呼吸,就沒有瑜伽。



深層的呼吸可以讓全身的系統運作良好,全身的九大系統,肌肉及骨髂系統只是最粗的一部分,最精細的一部分如內分泌及神經系統常為瑜伽人所輕忽。因為看不到,感受不到。。所以,不重視。但這一切肉身的背後,有一個無名的力量在主使著一切,那就是心,在心的背後還有一個無名的力量,那就是真我,一個與整個宇宙合而為一的力量,所以這個物質的世界實際上是一個大幻象,一切都不是真實的存在,所有的一切都會毀壞,所以,有一天我們也會變成歷史的一部分,但只有無形的心所凝集的力量會留下。



18.4 This existence is just imagination. It is nothing in reality, but there is no non-being for natures that know how to distinguish being from not being.

這個世界僅是一種想像,一點也不真實,自性無不存在著對有與無的明覺(bhavabhavavibhavinam)…..
王者之王瑜伽經18.4,P-152



其實,寫部落格很累,很想三言兩語就結束一個話題,但想想,很多學問若沒有全面扎根的學習,只能學會大原則,以大原則去教大班制的學生,尚可行;但教一對一one on one就會有問題,因為你必須對他的身體有很深的認識,可以編排出適合他的教學。因為:魔鬼永遠藏在細節裡,在教學上必須心細如絲。



 沒有理論支持的行動,就像沒有船舵和指南針的水手,永遠不知道方向。

這是達文西﹝Leonardo da Vinci﹞﹝1452 ~ 1519﹞ 所說的名言。

祝福大家

Judy 





參考資料:



頭倒立http://www.yogajournal.com/poses/481





Cranial Fault  http://www.holisticresources.org/nss-folder/craniopathy/



CRANIOPATHY

A POWERFUL APPROACH TO WELLNESS

by Dr. Barry Goldberg, DC, Certified Craniopath, DACBN



If you can imagine yourself at a puppet show you will be able to understand Craniopathy. Very small strings attached to the puppets' arms, legs, and head are all attached to a wood block called a tressel, which the puppeteer holds in his hands and controls all the movements of the puppet. Your body is the puppet and your skull is the tressel. If there is a problem at the tressel (skull) no matter what the puppeteer (doctor) does to the puppet (body) and no matter how many times he untangles the strings, the problems (pain or dysfunction) will always recur until he repairs the problem at the tressel (skull).



Both cranial and diaphragmatic respiration are controlled by a small body of nerve tissue that lies at the base of the brain known as the respiratory center. The center functions as the "master control," keeping perfect timing between cranial and diaphragmatic respiration. We breathe in with diaphragmatic respiration as the brain expands with cranial respiration and the cranial bones move outward to accommodate. When we breathe out with diaphragmatic respiration, the brain contracts in a cranial respiration and the bones retract. When one or more of these cranial bones are moving improperly it is known as a cranial fault.



Cranial faults can cause many symptoms from headaches to backaches or any malfunction of the body. The most common cause of these faults is difficulty in the birth process. The skull of the newborn baby is very pliable. The use of forceps on the soft skull during the birth experience can be traumatic and may cause cranial faults. Most severe cases of cranial faults develop before the age of seven. However, people develop cranial faults later in life from traumatic accidents, i.e. car or blows to the head. Emotional trauma is also a known cause of cranial faults and should not be overlooked. Severe emotional stress causes the body to adopt a defensive torking position in which the spine and skull receive as much punishment as if they had undergone physical trauma. Continuing research will discover more about cranial faults.



Cranial adjustment – The doctor holds the patient's head in a prescribed manner so that bones that are not meant to move are stabilized. Then, he makes the correction by pressing on one of the cranial bones in a specific direction while the patient breathes in or out in a pattern that will assist the correction. These adjustments are rarely painful. However, they can sometimes create emotional reactions, from a feeling of euphoria to depression. These reactions are temporary. Often, patients report having no reaction at all or a feeling of relief and a release of pressure. Cranial adjustments by a craniopath have produced profound and dramatic results for many people. These patients return to work and recreational activities that were long-abandoned and labeled painful. Their lives are restored to them as quickly as if a magical wand had been waved over their heads.



BARRY GOLDBERG, DC , CERTIFIED CRANIOPATH practices in Phoenix at 3228 E.Indian Schol Road and can be reached at  602-957-0543  602-957-0543 .



  • 留言者:
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  • 日期: 2010-04-15 23:50:10

老師:
辛苦了阿!每次上完肌動學就在期待你的心得,有你才讓我的這堂課更
完整,對上課內容我還在慢慢吸收理解,讓我很訝異的是,上這門課的人
還真是形形色色,至少每次跟我搭檔練習的媽媽,就讓我很佩服她的認
真;
文章開頭那短短的三四句話也是我最近的觀察及感觸,縱使外在姿勢上
看似完美,但細心觀察不難發現姿勢透露出了性格.
胸廓沒開無法吸進更多的氧氣,心沒打開無法容納更多的世界.瑜珈,無
論是教學或做為個人練習,都不是那麼輕鬆容易.
Sandra


  • 留言者: keshava
  • Email: keshava.tw@yahoo.com.tw
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  • 日期: 2010-04-16 00:04:48

Dear Judy,namaskar

你是位很好的老師 可嘉惠許多人 加油

顯峯

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